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The Teeth and Their Environment - Physical, Chemical and Biochemical Influences
The Teeth and Their Environment - Physical, Chemical and Biochemical Influences
Von: R. M. Druckworth (Eds.)
Karger, 2006
Providing a current overview of how physical, chemical and biochemical aspects of the oral environment influence tooth condition, this publication covers caries, calculus, tooth wear and erosion, and the roles of pellicle, saliva and plaque in inducing and/or moderating these conditions. It highlights topics such as new intra-oral and laboratory methods to assess tooth wear, the latest ideas on de- and re-mineralisation processes involving enamel and dentine, new insights into the tooth structure-function relationship and the site specificity of anticaries treatments. Reviews of pellicle function and of the inverse relationship between caries and calculus complete the volume. This valuable book is highly recommended to all oral care scientists, laboratory and clinical researchers alike, and to lecturers in dental medicine. 

Contents and Preface 
On the Relationship between Calculus and Caries (Duckworth) 
The Structure, Function and Properties of the Acquired Pellicle (Hannig) 
Model Parameters and Their Influence on the Outcome of in vitro Demineralisation and Remineralisation Studies (Lynch) 
Tooth Wear (Pickles) 
Nanomechanics, Chemistry and Structure at the Enamel Surface (Mann) 
Plaque as a Reservoir for Active Ingredients (Duckworth) 
Author-and Subject Index 

Chapter 4

Duckworth RM (ed): The Teeth and Their Environment.
Monogr Oral Sci. Basel, Karger, 2006, vol 19, pp 86?104

Tooth Wear (p. 86-87)

M.J. Pickles
Unilever Oral Care, Bebington, Wirral, UK

4.1 Introduction

The term ?tooth wear? is commonly used to describe the loss of tooth hard tissue due to non-carious causes [1]. This encompasses a variety of both chemical and mechanical causes of both intrinsic and extrinsic origin. The term tooth wear is preferred over some of the more precise definitions of individual hard tissue loss mechanisms, because it acknowledges the fact that wear is usually a multifactorial process; one mechanism may dominate, but the overall wear is commonly due to the interaction between two or more wear mechanisms. In dentistry, the terms erosion, abrasion, attrition and abfraction are widely used to describe particular mechanisms of hard tissue loss.

This chapter contains a short review of factors affecting tooth wear, followed by a discussion of methods to measure tooth wear, illustrated with some selected examples. The chapter will not attempt to review the literature on tooth wear in detail, although specific publications of interest will be discussed. For detailed reviews, the reader is referred to papers by Azzopardi et al. [2] and Milosevic [3] and the book edited by Addy et al. [4].

4.2 Tooth Wear Mechanisms

The mechanisms of tooth wear fall into two distinct types: those of chemical origin (e.g. erosion) and those of physical origin (e.g. abrasion, attrition). In any individual, both chemical and physical insults to the tooth hard tissue will be present in some form or other, so tooth wear is the combined effect of these insults. Despite the clear definition of a number of distinct tooth wear mechanisms, it is uncommon to find a single wear mechanism present in the mouth [1]. Thus, the term tooth wear is preferred over the individual mechanistic definitions, as it allows for the interactions between mechanisms to produce an overall loss of tooth hard tissue.

4.2.1 Erosion

Erosion is defined as the loss of hard tissue by chemical means not derived from bacteria, i.e. the dissolution of hard tissue by acid where the acid source is not the oral bacteria [5]. Erosion may be caused by either intrinsic (e.g. stomach acid) or extrinsic (e.g. dietary) sources. Erosion is often associated with the consumption of acid products, such as fruits or acid beverages, or with medical conditions where reflux of acidic into the oral cavity is present. Interestingly, the term erosion is widely used in other fields where the definition is rather different.

For example, in the field of tribology, erosion refers to the loss of material from a surface by solid or liquid impacts [6]. In the classical tribological definitions, the mechanism dentists refer to as erosion would be described as corrosion, or tribo-chemical wear.




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